Provincial Archives of New Brunswick

Fort Havoc (Wallace Hale)

Info The language of the text is the original used by Wallace Hale. Records acquired by the Provincial Archives are not translated from the language in which they originate.

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Our Industries.1

Connell Bros. Foundry  Small & Fisher Foundry   Drysdale Door & Sash Factory   Robert Smith Woodworking   Bourne & Atkinson's Planing and Turning Mill, Furniture Factory   J. W. Garrity, Manufacturer of Furniture   A. Henderson Furniture Factory   John Loane, Carriage Maker   Baker Brothers Carriage Factory   Thos. Donoho's Carriage Factory   Hayden's Steam Saw Mill   Hugh Davis, Jr.'s Saw Mill   Craig & Hale's Steam Saw Mill   Hugh Davis, Jr.'s Grist Mill and Carding Mill   John McCormac Tannery   Mr. J. D. Dickinson's Steam Tannery   Jas. Baker Boot & Shoe Maker   Hamilton & Dickinson   Bailie Bros.   Cluff & Barker   Philip Davis Harness Manufacturer   T. L. Estey   Jas. D. Reid Harness Maker   Simon McLeod   John Walker   James McRae   Wm. Hamilton   J. McAffee   P. Ryan   John Kerrigan   R. S. Piper   Benton Tannery   Sharp & Shea Nurseries   Hale & Boyer Steam Saw Mill   Charles E. Parent Carriage Shop   C. A. West, Blacksmith

20 October, 1877.

At the present time there are two essentials required to give character to a town. First, it must have communication with the outside world by rail; and second, it must have manufactures. And these two largely depend upon and foster each other. Woodstock enjoys decidedly the first essential, and has railway accommodation that exceeds in extent even the fancies of enthusiasts of twenty years ago, who with all their theories and hopes scarcely had faith to comprehend the realization of to-day.

We propose to devote some space and time to an interview of our several industries, great and small, in order to a proper understanding as to how far Woodstock meets the second requisition, "What are your manufactures?"

It is not necessary to discuss the importance of manufactures, either in the broader sense, as they affect the convenience of society or the trade of nations, or yet the narrower sense as they affect the prosperity of communities. The importance of manufactures is universally admitted, although in this as in other towns, the admission has, however, to too large an extent been made theoretically rather than practically by those who, having the means, have shown a sad indisposition to invest in manufactures, which, while they would return immediate benefits to the whole community, would, in the result, accrue in large advantage to themselves. In fact here, as elsewhere, our richest men have in this sense been the least enterprising, and whatever monuments to their own individual success they have have erected — success achieved out of the hard earnings and sweat of labor — have reared but few over which might be written Pro Bono Publico.

We shall find probably that the industries we possess have come from the toil, the industry and enterprise of their individual founders.

Twenty-five years ago the traveller who visited Woodstock, stepping ashore from the old "Carleton," or descending from the mail coach — in which connections it is but just to say there were large expenditures that benefitted the laborers, artizans and farmers of this county — found himself in a town of many shops and taverns, a town with an old saw mill and tannery; an incipient foundry, some old fashioned shoe-maker and tailor shops, and a primitive furniture shop where bedsteads and chairs were made and mended.

To-day arriving by train from north, or west, or south, one finds the town in all its aspects, except the general configuration changed — stay, there are still the crooked and irregular streets that are and will be a reproach and source of regret to all modern ideas of propriety. A prominent feature is the number and character of its stores, forcing upon the traveller the conclusion that either general business must be greatly over-done or else that Woodstock enjoys control of the trade of large and rich out-lying country. These shops by the way, convey the impression at once of a large amount of trade, the revenues from which must, in a great measure, be sent abroad to pay for the goods and wares of foreign manufacture with which the shelves are filled; to the intelligent they do not of themselves convey the idea of actual growth and sure prosperity, because they do not indicate the diffusion of money at home to productive and reproductive labor.

But happily a change equally great may be observed in the extent and scope of our industrial establishments, in connection with which the modern requirements are met through the instrumentality of modern inventions and increased number of hands.

Then the tailor shop, shoe shop, cabinet shop; the mills, &c., each employed from one to three men, affording a bare living to the proprietor who did a very limited amount of work for a more limited return in cash, a large proportion of the trade of the town being not in cash but "dicker." Now such establishments employ scores of work-men and work-women, whose weekly earnings and weekly living creates a healthy and pretty large current of cash trade.

Of course these facts prove as well the increase of demand; the growth in wealth and taste and culture of the country, as they illustrate the enterprise and energy that have made provisions to meet that demand.

And still, situated as Woodstock is, and associated with natural facilities for such, we should not be content with merely providing for home requirements, but the scope of our manufactures should be broadened to seek and make markets abroad; but on this point there may be opportunity for remark further along.

We find that these remarks fill our available space this week; in our next issue we shall enter upon the details to which this article is an introduction.

27 October, 1877.

Connell Bros. Foundry. — As regards amount of capital invested and extent of productions, the manufacture of Iron ware is the leading industry in Town; indeed there is no other the productions of which enter more generally into the every day use of everybody.

The Foundry of Messrs. Connell Bros. is situated at the southern part of the Town, close by the N. B. & C. Railroad and conveniently to the depot of that road. This establishment was opened in 1870, the firm being composed of three Connell Brothers, Mr. H. A. Connell being then, as he is now, the head and active manager of the concern. Mr. H. A. Connell is a native of this County, and eldest son of the late Harry Connell. After having acquired a knowledge of the machinist business, at Bangor, Mr. Connell, still quite young, commenced life as engineer, in the up-river steamer John Waring, but found little in the drudgery and small pay connected with such employment to satisfy his ambition and, seeing no promising opening that suited him in this country, he left the Province and made his way to South America, where he speedily obtained employment and rapid and honorable promotion, in connection with an important steamship company in that country. During his stay there he witnessed the many and stirring vicissitudes and social commotions to which South America at that period was subject. Having acquired at once a large amount of practical business experience in connection with manufacturing and machinery and a sufficiency of means, Mr. Connell felt himself in a position to realize one of his early dreams, and came back to his old home in New Brunswick to invest his earnings and his practical information in the enterprise of which we now write.

The main building, in which are the casting house, machine shop, work shop, engine, &c. &c., is 50x114 feet on the ground, two storeys high, of brick, with iron roof. It is well lighted and ventilated throughout. On the opposite side of the yard is a long range of wooden buildings, in which are the office, tin shop, ware room, store room, &c. These buildings, with the yard they enclose, and a lumber yard, occupy an area of nearly an acre of ground. The amount of capital invested approximates to $45,000. The number of men at present employed is 29, of whom 10 are moulders, Mr. Thos. Allan, foreman; seven in the machine shop, of which Mr. Alex. Dunbar, a most competent Scotch workman is foreman, and the remainder are distributed among the other departments, Mr. Chas. Churchall(sic) being foreman of the tin shop and Mr. Jos. Craig of the blacksmith shop. In all these branches, from the pattern makers down, most efficient workmen, most of them of New Brunswick birth, are employed, but over the whole establishment Mr. Connell himself exercises a constant personal supervision, with the minutiæ of which he has a practical acquaintance.

The monthly pay roll amounts to over nine hundred dollars, or nearly eleven thousand dollars per year; this large sum, or by far the larger portion of it, is no doubt expended by the recipients for the support of themselves and families, and goes into the tills of the grocers, clothiers, butchers, shoe makers, &c.

The quantity and value of raw material used annually is, of course, very large, we note some of the items: Of pig iron 282 tons, costing say $20 per ton, or $5,640; sheet iron, 12 tons, $1,890; tin 100 boxes, $700; bar iron, 15 tons, $900; coal, 100 tons, $800. These show an aggregate value of $9,930. Besides the articles named there is a considerable quantity of Russian iron and of stamped tin ware imported for use, as well as bolts, wire, wood for agricultural implements, &c., which would add a large supplementary amount to the value above given.

The result, in manufactures, of the labor and material as above, annually, is, in part, 400 plows, 2,000 stoves of various patterns, including cook, parlor, hall stoves, &c.; 12 tons stove pipe; 30 horse rakes; 4 grist mills; 1 rotary saw mill; 6 shingle machines; 12 cider presses; 3 railroad hay presses. Mr. Connell is preparing next year to meet the growing demand for agricultural implements more fully than in the past; he is also just now making a specialty of wood furnaces, several of which he has supplied, and for which he has several orders. Besides the above there is, of course, an immense amount of work done which cannot be enumerated, repairs of broken mill gear being a heavy item, and bridge work a still heavier one, this establishment having furnished the iron work for the bridge over the river at Woodstock, and the Aroostook river bridge, for the N. B. Railway Co., and it has the contract for the iron for the railway bridge at Grand Falls.

In this, as in all well appointed manufacturing establishments of the present time, the machinery forms an important and interesting feature, and here in every branch, except in moulding, machinery does the bulk of the work, and does it with an accuracy as with a speed outrivalling the skill and power of human hands and human intelligence. The propelling power is a neat and very smooth running engine of 23 horse power. There are an engine lathe 75 feet long, 2 feet swing, one 10 feet long, 3 feet swing, and two other lathes for occasional purposes; a punching machine and shears, made in the establishment, of great power; the first will make a clean hole through ¾ inch iron, without jar or apparent effort, and the shears will cut off a piece of iron 3 in. by 5/8 of an inch, as easily as an editor's scissors will steal a clipping. One double geared boring machine, an iron planer, a steam hammer, a screw and nut cutter, a machine for straightening bent shafts, tubes, &c.

In the wood working department there are a Daniels and Surface planer, a variety moulding machine, jig saw, cut off and rip circulars; and in the tin shop, the improved devices which have of late years so completely revolutionized the manner of making tin and sheet iron ware.

It is a great satisfaction, contrasting the present with the past, to know that a time has come when our people not only need not go abroad to purchase their stoves and plows, but when those requiring them may be furnished at home with the various kinds of implements and machinery that we have above enumerated; when the farmer, millwright and citizen may obtain whatever they want that is made of iron, cast or wrought, and get them made at home, of as good a quality and at less cost than abroad.

The social and pecuniary aspects of the case are in everywise satisfactory, and so would the moral aspect be, were it not that the saddening reflection comes home, what a terrible amount of profanity expressed or thought, is involved in the manipulation, by purchasers, of 12 tons of stove pipe, a quantity to be largely supplemented by the productions at, or for, the up-town foundry, and other smaller factories, which we visit by-and-by.

3 November, 1877.

Small & Fisher's Foundry

At the time, in the history of this town, to which we have before alluded, it was with great satisfaction that residents conducted visitors over the bridge, up the southern side of the creek for a little distance, and introduced them to a place styled with evident pride, "our foundry."   "Our foundry" had been then established by Mr. Nelson Baker, who exhibited in that connection much enterprise and an intelligent appreciation of the future; this establishment was conducted on a comparatively small scale, and the product was chiefly stoves, but from this, by direct and indirect succession, came the larger enterprise, to which we are about to carry our readers. All honor to the pioneers in this and every industrial enterprise; apt to be forgotten, they should be treasured in public memory, are the names of the humble beginners who have struck the first blows in those revolutions in the practical arts from which this grand manufacturing era has sprung. A peculiar fact is displayed in the development of the great industrial enterprises. The locale of their origination for a time is lost in view of the wondrous advantages such enterprises bestow on the world and leave to succeeding generations to revere and applaud. Those engaged in our various manufacturing establishments are originating useful ideas, expressed in beneficient appliances, and deserve, from all lovers of progress, esteem and regard, being co-workers with the great pioneers of industrial art.

After a few years Mr. Baker sold out to Mr. Robert A. Hay, who brought to the enterprise the necessary capital and the equally necessary practical business experience to make it a success. Under Mr. Hay's control the business expanded, a machinists department being added, and became firmly established. In 1859 Mr. John Fisher, Jr, then recently from the North of England, became a partner with Mr. Hay, and so continued until 1864, in which year he retired and, in company with Mr. A. J. Small, who since 1861 had carried on very successfully the manufacture of tin-ware, established on its present site, Elm street, in the northern part of the town, the business since that period known as Small & Fisher. In 1867 Small & Fisher bought out Mr. Hay's business and transferred the plant, machinery, &c., to their own premises, and for a time controlled a manufacturing interest that has since grown amazingly. In February of the present year Mr. A. J. Small died, and thus the management of the concern devolved upon Mr. Fisher alone.

This establishment occupies an area of about an acre of land. Its buildings are machine and wood shop, with two floors of 6,000 square feet, exclusive of capacious attic; moulding house, 2,200 square feet; stove shop, 2 floors, 1,800 feet; warehouse, 2 floors, 3,600 feet; besides several small detached buildings, in which are the offices, &c. These buildings are all of wood.

The amount of capital invested is about $20,000. Number of hands employed in the several departments, twenty, to whom are paid wages amounting to $500 per month, or $6,000 per annum.

The raw material used annually includes 200 tons of pig iron, value $4,000; bar iron, 30 tons, value $1,800; coal, 50 tons, value $400; sheet iron, 5 tons, value $785; tin, 20 boxes, value $140; lumber, for the manufacture principally of threshing machines, with horse power, which is a specialty of this establishment, forty thousand feet, value $600; and cord wood, for fuel, 100 cords, value $200; giving an aggregate value of raw material of over $7,925.

We may remark here that the firm does not manufacture the tin and sheet iron ware they use; they furnish the material and have the work done in another establishment.

The annual productions may be stated generally as 300 plows, 400 stoves, 30 threshing machines, with horse power attachment, 30 cultivators. And during the present year the manufacture of Powers hand loom has been entered upon, and of these four have been disposed of, and there are forty more completed and others under way, to meet the anticipated demand when the time for weaving arrives and this excellent and most effective weaver becomes better known. We have stated the principal manufactures, but, of course, there are many other articles produced, and a large amount, in the aggregate of time, labor and material, expended on repairs, job work, &c.

The machinery consists of a fine engine of 20 horse power, watered by a steam pumping engine, which is a perfect little beauty, that gives motion to an iron planer with a surfacing capacity of 8 ft. by 2 ft. 6 in.; three engine lathes — one 18 feet long, 86 in. swing — one 10 feet long, 20 in. swing — one 4 ft. long, 15 in. swing; with two chuck lathes, one for boring and one for drilling; three emery grinders; a bolt and nut cutter; a steam hammer which, guided by a finger of the attendant, strikes a ponderous blow, shattering the iron bar, or falls lightly and tenderly with a stroke adapted to the most delicate work; it will compress iron an inch or a hair's breadth, as may be desired; two blowers, one each for the furnace of the casting house and the blacksmith's forge; a bolt heading machine; a screw press; two machines for cutting iron, one for round rods, cutting 7/8 of an inch, and one for bars, cutting 3x½ inch, and an upright drill; these are all contained in the machine shop.

In the wood working department there are a Woodworth and a Daniels planer; 3 circulars; 1 band saw; 1 shaping machine, a lathe and a mortising machine.

In the establishment we have just visited, after witnessing the molten liquid flowing into the moulds, the hardened shapes removed therefrom, the whirling and precise machinery doing skilfully its allotted work, then passing into the wareroom we look upon the several parts united and forming the complete result in the article ready for use, its style and finish inviting the severest criticism, with profound satisfaction. The same remark applies equally to that other establishment of which we wrote last week. A stove is a stove, as a plow is always a plow, but in these, as in all other things, the fashions changeth, and the time has passed when the stove is merely an implement wherein to consume fuel, or a plow one simply to tear up the soil, and in these foundries the proprietors have due regard to the lessons that science has taught, even as regards these necessary implements, and seek to produce the stove that presents the handsomest appearance, while, with the smallest amount of fuel, it gives out the largest amount of heat and affords the most perfect arrangement for cooking; and so with the plow, adopting those shapes which, with the least amount of labor of the man that guides and the team that draws, will turn the smoothest furrow in any kind of soil. It may be that the wares we see here are not so lustrous in varnish and plate as some we might see in the warerooms of large cities, but in all the essentials they are equally adapted to the wants of buyers and the convenience of their pockets.

Noting the large annual sales of stoves, and reflecting upon the fact that but a small per centage can be bought by new beginners at house keeping, and upon the other fact that the large proportion must go to supplant worn out or unfashionable or disapproved stoves, the question arises, What becomes of the old stoves? — Well, we see them in these foundries all around us; some warped and broken and battered; disfigured in the face, distorted in limb and out of joint generally; some only slightly marred, but consigned to the region of old stoves, through disfavor or because some reigning favorite has usurped their place; some being shattered by the sledge of the workman into as near the original elements as breakage can affect — here they are, but here not to remain. They are in process of transmigration, not annihilation; see, they go into that open mouth furnace, in which fire and coal create a miniature volcano; now they are molten, and out from that small apperture, the plug of clay removed, they come in a livid stream into the flasks and out of the flasks and into the finishing shop, and away through the country, and now readers, you sitting before your cosey(sic) little parlor stove are looking upon the self same metal that you recently in another form turned away in disgrace; and your old cook stove ignored and taunted and dismissed, lo, is it not again in your own or your neighbor's kitchen, with a new arrangement of fire box and oven and heaters and dampers, with a new name, returned to its transmigrated state, "a thing of beauty and a joy forever?" This is what becomes of the old stoves.

Oh, that old stove I cooked on which the griddle cakes of youth were sublime; that old stove beside which "love's young dream" was indulged in. Oh that — well, there, fancy's dreamings are interfering with the practical. Iron foundries in the abstract are not sentimental, and it won't do to indulge in the sentimental train on which we had just entered, lest our apostrophe should excite such a reverence for old stoves that there would be no more demand and the occupation be gone of Small & Fisher.

Note. — In fact this article should have had precedence, this being the oldest establishment, but for reasons of which the parties interested are aware, it was more convenient to publish them in the order we have.

10 November, 1877.

Drysdale & Co.'s Door and Sash Factory. — Wood preceded iron in its induction as an instrument of utility and art. For many of its original uses iron now takes the place of wood, while in many others the two combined presents in tangible and practical form some of the greatest triumphs of the industrial arts. Between the two, however, there exists a rivalry; future generations must determine the verdict as to their relative claims; for the future in this respect the present is experimenting. We have in our own country iron, but it is not used, while we still retain in this neighborhood some melancholy mementoes of a once promising enterprise in its manufacture. We have a well wooded country, and are large consumers of those wooden wares that, so largely, enter into relations with our domestic economies, but, unfortunately, we import, do not make, a large portion of these articles. We send our wood away to be manufactured by foreigners for us. The published returns of the Dominion do not so define the different kinds of wooden ware imported as to enable one to divide them, and therefore we are unable to show the value of goods, of the kind made in the factory we are about to visit, imported; this we do learn, that in 1876 there was imported into this Province of these unenumerated wooden goods to the value of $19,374, the duties paid being $3,391, of which, we have good reason to suppose, a considerable amount was of the kind referred to below, while all, or very nearly all, was for goods that might and should be manufactured in the Province. However, leaving these theories and speculations, just now, as to what we should but do not do, let us ascertain what we do produce and how, and to this end come with us first to the Door and Sash Factory of Drysdale & Co.

This establishment was originated here by a Mr. Goodwin, who came from Bangor, in 1862; it was started in the upper flat of the mill of Mr. Hugh Davis, Jr., and run by water power. In 1866 Messrs. W. T. Drysdale and John Frazer bought out Mr. Goodwin, and conducted that business till 1869, in which year Mr. Frazer retired and Mr. Jas. E. Drysdale took his place, since which time the two brothers, W. T. and Jas. E. Drysdale have carried on the business under the title given above. These gentlemen are natives of Sunbury Co., but for several years previous to embarking in their present enterprise resided in this County, pursuing their calling of builders and house joiners. Soon after the date last mentioned the firm erected the buildings in which the business is now prosecuted, on a very advantageous site, contiguous to the railroad depot, and introduced steam as the motive power. It is not difficult to find this establishment, as the very large main building is pretty well covered with painted statements, as to the manufactures within, in letters so large as to be conspicuous at a distance; thus the firm advertises through the painters, if they do not through the printers art.

The amount of capital invested here is $8,000; number of hands employed, 7; amount of wages paid monthly, $250, or $3,000 annually.

The quantity of raw material used, being, of course, largely pine lumber, amounts in value to $2,000 per year, representing probably between 150,000 and 200,000 feet.

The annual products in doors, sashes, blinds, mouldings, brackets and other finish, and stairs, manufacture of which is a specialty, reach a value of $9,000.

The ground covered by the buildings and otherwise occupied for lumber yards, &c., is about half an acre, on which the principal erections are: the factory, 90x26 feet, two floors; engine house, 14x24 feet; warehouse, 30x75 feet, one floor of this being used for lumber.

The machinery, driven by a steam engine of 20 horse power, consists of a Woodworth planer; 2 moulders; 1 tongue and groove machine; 1 jig saw; 3 circulars; 3 morticing machines; 1 tenoning machine; 1 dovetail machine, mitreing machines, Emery wheels, &c.

Under the management of the energetic, industrious and intelligent proprietors, this establishment has proved a great convenience not merely to the townspeople but to the country generally, in which there is an amount of building done, scarcely exceeded by any other in the Province; and we also hope, and the conclusion is pretty evident, that they have been well rewarded.

17 November, 1877.

Robert Smith's Wood Working Factory. — In order to keep the manufacturers of the same general class together on paper we have to oscillate between the two ends of the town. — Just as in the case of the foundries, so with two of the wood working establishments in which steam power is used; while the one we in last paper referred to is in the southern district, the other that we now visit is in the northern extremity.

In March, 1876, Mr. Robert Smith, a native of St. John, but for some years residing and doing business in Woodstock, opened, in a fine, large, and thoroughly appointed building which he had erected for the purpose, on the corner of Elm and Green streets, a factory for the manufacture of hubs, spokes, felloes, horse rakes, &c. In this factory he had placed 21 machines, at a cost of some $5,000, and had got it fairly under way, with every prospect of its proving a grand success, when, unfortunately, in the following February, less than a year from the opening, the whole establishment, with the contents, was consumed by fire. That this calamity only tested Mr. Smith's nerve, without disheartening, is proved from the fact that in May, 1877, a little over three months from the time of the fire, the establishment was rebuilt and again at work, not in all its appointments so perfect as the old one, but still essentially prepared for another beginning. Soon after occurred the fire that destroyed so large a portion of Woodstock. Mr. Smith at once perceived that there would be immediately a large demand for doors, sashes, &c., and he resolved to utilize his factory for the production of such articles.

The establishment occupies land 275 feet on Elm street and 150 on Green street. The building is 35x65 feet on two floors; besides basement and attic, all of which are occupied. The engine room is 25x35 feet.

The amount of capital invested is $7,000; number of hands employed, 12, to whom wages amounting to $320 per month, or $3,840 per year, is paid.

The amount of raw material used — lumber of course — is 1,000 feet per day; or Mr. Smith estimates his year's consumption will be 80,000 feet of pine and 40,000 of hard wood. The products thus far are 15 store fronts, complete; 60 horse rakes; 55 farm wagons.

The machinery consists of a steam engine of 20 horse power; 3 circular saws; 1 band saw, iron framed; 1 moulding and matching machine; 1 sash machine; 1 tennoner, double headed with copes; 1 Gray & Woods combination planer — this is a machine so arranged that surface planing, such as is done by the Woodworth planer, may be done, or it may be used, if required, to plane the surface out of wind and true; 1 morticing machine; 1 spoke lathe; 1 turning lathe; 1 dovetailing machine; sand belt machine; power paint mill; steam boxes, &c. &c.

This summer, as intimated, the special demand has kept the establishment busy in making finish for stores, &c., but it is the intention of the proprietor, we believe, to keep in view the object for which the factory was originally designed, and supply the constantly increasing demand for hubs, felloes, rims, &c., for the waggon makers, and horse rakes, with other agricultural implements, in all of which departments the field of demand is wide and constant, and of all which articles too much is now imported.

Referring in general terms to the industry of this and the establishment before referred to of Messrs. Drysdale, it may be remarked upon as one in which the application of machinery has created a wonderful revolution. The manufacture of those articles by hand was a laborious, tedious and time consuming process. It is true, the making of doors and sashes afforded work for carpenters during the winter months when their more ordinary work was per force suspended, but great delay in the completion of buildings was also entailed. Now by the use of machinery, beautifully adjusted to the preparation of several parts, and the division of labor, the expensiveness of building and the amount of time occupied is greatly reduced, while the work, if the machinery is looked after with ordinary care, must be more uniform than it could possibly be when performed by hand. The same remarks apply to the production of the parts of wheeled vehicles, while as regards mouldings and brackets which, now, so largely appear in the outer and inner adornments of buildings, the contrast between the old mode and the present is very striking. These, by the slow and back weakening process of hand sawing, the plank had to be ripped up in rough dimensions, then by hand plane made square and of a size, then by the proper moulding planes the tedious operation of giving the face to the work was performed, and a hard day's work resulted in a hundred feet or so of prepared moulding. Now, however, the swiftly running circular cuts up the plank into proper dimensions, when the strips passing through a combined moulder and planer, as fast as a man can feed them in, come out perfect and uniform, with little expenditure of manual labor, in thousands of feet per day.

It is true, people got along in other days without the aid of these improved labor saving devices, though it sometimes is hard for the modern ideas to understand how. Certain it is mechanics then had to do harder work, if they did not work harder than they do now. Of course the demand was less and the age was slower. A man commenced and completed an ordinary house in a year and he was satisfied, whereas now he wants to move in within a month after ground for the foundation is broken. The young man now-a-day will pop the question, engage a builder, be married and occupy his new house all within a few weeks — such is the spirit of our fast times.

A striking illustration of the advantages resulting from the introduction of machinery is experienced in instances which have occurred this season. St. John, Woodstock, St. Stephen, destroyed by fire in the spring, are largely rebuilt and reinhabited this fall, a result that could scarcely have been accomplished was it not for the abounding manufacturing facilities; was it not for such establishments as those we have last week and this visited.

24 November, 1877.

Bourne & Atkinson's Planing and Turning Mill, Furniture Factory, &c.

Pant and puff, pant and puff, for ten hours of almost every day in the year except Sundays, goes the steam from a small escape pipe protruding through the roof of a small engine house attached to a not large building situated a few rods above the bridge on the south side of the Meduxnakeag. Here is the establishment named in the head line above. But if, as stated, the building is not large — pretentious in appearance it certainly is not — we find within a bustle and activity which leaving no idle or unoccupied space, seems to ask for more room.

It was established in 1860, and originated with Mr. T. G. Bourne, an Englishman, and practical cabinet-maker, particularly for the prosecution of his business; since the retirement of the founder it has been run by his two sons, H. W. and F. W. Bourne, and more recently by them associated with Mr. Wm. Atkinson, all of these young men being natives of this County. Mr. H. W. Bourne is the senior of the firm and the general manager, but they are all workers in and for the business.

The amount of capital invested is $6,000; number of hands employed, 7; wages paid $200 each month, or $2,400 per year.

The quantity of raw material used in lumber, paints, varnish, hardware, &c., is in value some $3,000.

The products in manufactured articles annually are 12,000 chairs and 1,300 bedsteads, the proprietors finding it more advantageous to confine themselves to the production of these two articles, for which there is a large home market, and for which they find considerable sales abroad, rather than to divide their attention to general furniture. But occasional orders for other furniture get attention; and they do a considerable business in planing lumber and turning for other manufacturers, from which two last items $900 per year is realized.

The machinery, run by a ten horse power engine, consists of a Woodworth planer; a self-acting lathe, a very ingenious machine for turning the irregular surfaces of bed posts, spindles, rails, &c., by pattern; an ordinary turning lathe; a boring machine; jig saw, tenoning machine and 3 circulars.

A bedstead and six chairs are essentials in every well or ill regulated family. Indeed in many a man's life that day on which he carried home his first bedstead and chairs wherewith to furnish the room to which he was presently to bring his new affianced bride, was among his happiest; with that investment he became assured of the real beginning of his manhood. There was a time when these most ordinary essentials were expensive, but now, by the aid of machinery, they are produced so rapidly and cheaply, and withal so neatly, that their cost is not a serious hindrance to matrimony and house-keeping, of course we mean to such humble minds as do not aspire to begin with Eastlake or other aristocratic styles. The history of chairs is the history of civilization and extravagance.

"The old arm chair," of the pathetic song, was probably a splint bottomed, straight backed and straight legged one, a kind that superseded the older fashioned stool; then came the Windsor chair, solid wood bottom, turned work frame and back. Some of us are not too young to remember when the advent in the house of half a dozen of these brand new, their seats splashed with yellow paint and umber and back rail gorgeous with stencilled birds, fruits and flowers, was an event of no inconsiderable moment. About that time parlors became a necessity in every household, and to supply the craving for something more befitting the dignity of the parlor, cane seats became popular, and they were "so nice," but soon even they, before the advancing tide of civilization, and chairs, had to take back seats and framed chairs, upholstered in hair, cloth, plush, rep and damask assumed supremacy. But still for all the more practical uses, for humble persons and for those disingenious souls who are content to be comfortable rather than grand, will still commend themselves the chairs such as those of which Messrs Bourne & Atkinson make 12,000 a year.

J. W. Garrity, Manufacturer of Furniture

From 1863 the origination of this establishment dates, when it came in existence, conducted by the firm Jacob Vanwart & Co. Since that time the business has passed through many changes, but Mr. Vanwart throughout has remained connected with it in one or another capacity. For some time past Mr. Garrity has been the proprietor. The factory is in the upper flat of the saw mill owned by Mr. Hugh Davis, Jr., and the machinery is driven by water power. The ware-room; paint shop, &c., is on Main street, south of the creek.

The amount of capital invested is $2,000; number of hands employed, 4; wages paid $104, monthly, or $1,248 yearly.

The quantity of raw material, in lumber, hard and soft woods of the County, 75,000 feet, and the value of paint stock used $100, giving an aggregate value of probably $1,200.

The machinery in use comprises 2 turning lathes; 2 jig saws; 2 boring machines; 4 circulars; 1 jointer; 1 groover; 1 tennoner.

The annual results of this industry includes 50 chamber sets; 1,000 chairs; 150 stools; 250 tables (various); 12 sideboards; 4 book cases; 200 bedsteads; 60 couches; 50 wash stands; 100 sinks, and, in the undertakers departments 100 coffins.

Then the value of work, in turning done for other establishments is annually $400, and of general job work some $500.

It will be remembered that it was from this establishment the chamber set, at the recent agricultural and mechanical exhibition here, which was so much admired, was shown.

1 December, 1877.

Our friends at Upper Woodstock would be offended possibly if we called that place a suburb of this town, which locality it is, and yet is not. Is not, because does it not boast justly in being itself the Shire Town, where are the temples of law and justice, and does it not exist beyond the jurisdiction of our civic potentates, His Worship and the Town Council, and yet it is, in that prophetic vision which sees in the future a vast town, embracing the lower and upper Woodstocks by a continuous net work of streets, crowded with population and all the evidence of prosperous magnificence as well as size. At all events no one will blame us that in our seeking after facts, in this industrial research in which we are engaged, we reach out the pen and introduce our readers to the

Furniture Factory of Mr. A. Henderson.

This establishment is at Upper Woodstock, and in a building there over which many strange experiences as well as years have passed, but which, probably, never was more worthily occupied than now, even in view of the fact that at the hospitable board spread within, when it was yet an hostelrie, often gathered the "grave and reverend" of the old "sessions" dispensation and the more democratic County Councillors under the "self government" regime.

This factory was established in 1864. The premises now occupied were purchased by Mr. H. in 1873. The main building is 36x46 feet — 3 floors, and the ell is 18x30 feet — 2 floors, and with the accessory buildings, lumber yards, &c., occupies about two-thirds of an acre of ground.

The capital invested is $3,000; number of hands employed, 5; wages paid, $150 per month, or $1,800 per year.

The raw material used annually comprises wood, in mahogany, walnut, oak, cherry, chestnut, ash, butternut, basswood, birch, maple, pine and spruce; in quantity 65,000 feet, and of a value of $1,500.

Paint stock, including varnishes, stains, &c., is valued at $350. Cabinet hardware, value $150. Glue, sand paper and sundries, value $200. Hair cloth, damask, osnaburg, cotton, curled hair, &c. &c., in the upholstering department, value $322. Giving a total value of raw material, furnishing goods, &c., used of $2,522.

The products of this establishment annually are 40 chamber suits; 20 bureaus; 25 sinks; 10 comodes(sic) ; 36 washstands; 36 toilet tables; 10 teapoy tables; 30 light stands; 15 extension tables; 40 fall leaf tables; 30 desks for shops and offices. In school furniture, 20 desks, 40 chairs, 35 settees. 10 cribs, 5 cradles; 10 music stools; 8 kitchen tables; 6 side tables; 15 centre tables; 20 mattrasses(sic) ; 60 couches; 10 sofas; 10 show cases; 10 French bedsteads; 5 French cribs; 10 children's chairs; 100 honey boxes; at an approximate value of $4,500. — Then he does furniture repairing to the amount of $200. In the undertakers department he turns out 20 coffins and 6 caskets, valued at $320 — making the total of $5,000.

In addition to the above Mr. Henderson buys of Bourne & Atkinson, in white, 600 chairs; 75 bedsteads. These are painted and finished in this establishment.

Then he imports annually 1200 cane seat chairs — shook — and 250 wood seat rocking chairs; 6 walnut parlor suits; 12 walnut centre tables, with marble tops; 6 easy chairs; 6 rocking chairs; 6 what-nots; 180 looking glasses; 15 patent cradles; 16 spring beds; 20 mattrasses, and various other small articles.

With the exception of some foot machines, Mr. Henderson does not use power on his premises; he has his machine work done at other establishments, but he has refitted his shops and contemplates putting in steam power next spring.


John Loane, Carriage Maker.

We have written of civilization and chairs; we might now, but won't, theorise on wheelbarrows, which were, we suppose, the first type of wheeled vehicles for locomotion. But if one thing more than another of the many outward manifestations tells of the advance of civilization in this County it is the character of the vehicles that our farmers now use, (not forgetting, of course, the animals that draw them, whose excellence is proverbial), not now the old-fashioned, crazy running, springless waggon — which in its day, no doubt, was a source of wonder and admiration, and which now, if one of these relics appear on the streets, is equally a source of wonder and amusement. Oh no! Now we have the graceful, easy riding, light running, artistically painted, grandly upholstered Concord axled waggon meeting us at every turn and, in every highway, throwing dust in our faces. Let it be said in praise of the old waggons and their builders that they were made to wear and never wear out.

And then the sleighs; why the sleighs of 50 years ago were as unlike those of to-day as a butter tub is unlike a beer bottle.

Well, while we have, to-day in this County, good carriages and sleighs, we are glad to believe that the major portion of them are made in the County, although we find that carriages to the value of $4,933 — duties $849 — were imported into the Province last year; but these, probably, for the most part were "reserved seat" carriages. This manufacture is an important branch of the industrial arts, and it will be interesting to note what our local manufacturers have been doing in that line. — And first:

Mr. John Loane established his factory here in 1869, on Connell street, near the junction of that street with Main; in May last, in common with so many others, he lost his buildings and nearly all of their contents by the great fire; with energy unsubdued he immediately proceeded to rebuild, and is now again at work briskly as ever on the former site.

The number of hands employed here is 7; wages paid monthly $245, or $2,940 per year.

Raw material in wood and iron amounts in value to $3,000 per year.

Mr. Loane has not yet introduced machinery into his building. His machine work is done elsewhere. The iron work being done on the premises.

The products of the establishment are 40 driving waggons; 6 gigs; 30 sleighs; 18 pungs, and there is a large amount of repairing done annually.

The painting is done in an adjoining shop by Mr. J. W. Boyer, whose reputation as an artist in this department is widely known and acknowledged. — Mr. Jas. McWha is the upholsterer for the establishment; and all the parties named herein are, we believe, New Brunswickers by birth.

8 December, 1877.

Baker Brothers' Carriage Factory.

On Connell street, just above the establishment we last visited, is the carriage factory of which Messrs. S. T. and R. B. Baker, these brothers being natives of this County, are the proprietors. It was established in 1875, on another site, when it was destroyed in our great fire last spring, and rebuilt on its present ground immediately after.

The number of hands at work here are 4, the proprietors themselves, as in all the establishments we have noted, being active laborers in the industry. Wages paid monthly is $80, or $960 per year.

Of raw material in wood and iron they consume to the value of $5,000.

The products, averaged upon past operations, are 10 driving waggons; 4 heavy waggons; 12 sleighs; 9 pungs; but a large portion of the time and force of this establishment is given to repairs and job work, for which there is constant demand necessarily, as ours is a riding and driving people, and therefore constant repair is a necessity.

The iron work is done on the premises, the junior of the firm being a practical in this department.

The painting is done by Mr. J. W. Boyer and the upholstering by Mr. S. T. Baker.


Thos. Donoho's Carriage Factory.

Passing up Main street, toward the northern end, one cannot fail to observe, on the right hand side, a rather tall building, the front of which is pretty well covered with painted letters, which letters of fanciful style, form words and sentences indicating the character of the industry to which the building is devoted. This is Mr. Donoho's factory. The gentleman came here in 1874, having served an apprenticeship at the business in Augusta, Me., and bought out the business previously conducted by Kirk and Jewett, and refitted the premises for the convenient prosecution of his business.

The land occupied by Mr. D. is 54x115 feet. The carriage shop is 22x50, 2 flats, the upper one used as a paint shop, and a basement for storage of lumber, &c. His blacksmith shop is in an adjoining building, this part of the work being done by Mr. G. J. Jonah.

The amount of capital invested, $2,000; number of hands employed, 5, of whom some are apprentices, and the amount of wages approximates to $125 per month, or $1,500 per year.

The value of the raw material used, comprising lumber, iron, trimming material, paints, &c., amounts to $1,500 annually.

The productions of this establishment are of carriages, which includes sleighs, pungs, and all kinds of wheeled vehicles, 30, valued at $2,200, and the value of the repairing done is $1,500 annually. The painting and trimming is done by Mr. Donoho himself, so that everything, except the plating of such parts of the work as require it, is done on the premises; and we are fully justified in saying that Mr. D. has won deservedly an excellent reputation for the neatness of finish and general excellence of his work.


We did not forget that before wood was fit to be manufactured into cabinet work, carriages, &c., it had to undergo the process of original manufacture in the saw mills. But it was not convenient to notice these institutions before, and we therefore take them up now. And in this respect Woodstock is well provided in regards to the number and capacity of its mills.

Hayden's Steam Saw Mill.

is situated on the bank of the river, at the upper end of the town, and not far from the bridge over the river. It was burned in May last, but in a few weeks was rebuilt, and is a large structure, well apportioned and of good capacity. The details of the business of this establishment we are not, we regret to say, in a position to give. But we may say, on our own authority, that Mr. Hayden is the pioneer, among the mill proprietors here to-day, of the business, and that he has turned his experience and industry to good account. Indeed he has entirely changed the aspect of that part of the town in which he operates, by the number of buildings, some of them exceedingly neat, which he has erected there.


Hugh Davis, Jr.'s Saw Mill.

This mill is near the mouth of the Meduxnekeag, on the south side. It was erected in 1857. The motive power is water, a Slater wheel of 25 horse power, being used, driving a 50 in. rotary saw and edger. Another wheel — a spiral vent — drives a clapboard and shingle machine. While a third — a Slater wheel — works the machinery in the factory up stairs which we have before noticed.

The amount of capital invested is $6,000; number of hands annually employed, 3; wages paid, $135 per month, or $1,620 annually.

The annual products are one million feet of lumber of the various native growths, 50,000 clapboards and 300,000 shingles.

The size of this mill is 45x68. It's well situated for the business, which is carefully looked after by its enterprising proprietor, and is, especially since the new road to it along the bank of the creek has been opened, convenient of access.

15 December, 1877.

Craig & Hale's Steam Saw Mill.

The enterprise of Messrs. Wardsworth & Murchie, in building a steam saw mill some five years ago, a little above the bridge on the south side of the Meduxnakeag, was regarded properly with much interest by the people of this town, to whom its destruction, by fire, a short time after it was got in operation, was a source of great regret.

Happily upon the site of that mill a new one has arisen, through the enterprise of Messrs. Craig & Hale, gentlemen of large experience in lumber getting and in its manufacture.

The mill was erected in the present year. Its size is 54x100 feet, with a boiler house 25x50 feet. By the kindness of the proprietors we are enabled to state the several items of expense connected with the building and finishing of this establishment. The details of expense are:—

Millwright work
Blacksmith work
Brick, stone and mason work
Iron and coal
Saws and belts
4 boilers
Clapboard machine
Lath machine
Making a total of capital invested, irrespective of land, of $13,815.

As this mill has not been in operation a year, and as considerable delay in its working has been occasioned during the past summer owing to the lowness of the water in the creek, which prevented the proper supply of logs, we cannot give its production fairly.

The capacity of this mill, however, is annually four and a half millions of deals, five millions of laths, and 450 thousand of clapboards.

This mill should, and no doubt will, have a side track from the N. B. & C. Railroad put in for better facility in the export of the lumber, which has now to be hauled by team from the mill the the cars.


Hugh Davis, Jr.'s Grist Mill and Carding Mill.

These establishments are on the south side of the Meduxnakeag, a short distance below the bridge. On the site now occupied by these, they were first established in 1848 by Messrs. R. & H. Davis, and they were destroyed by fire in 1869.

In 1870 the carding mill was rebuilt by Mr. Robt. Davis, and the present proprietor took possession of it in 1873. This mill is 30x40 feet, 3 storeys high. It has one water wheel (spiral vent) which drives a double Custom carding machine.

The capital invested is $2,000.

Number of hands employed during the season, 2, to whom $60 per month, or $720 per year in wages is paid. — Some eight barrels of oil annually are used for greasing the wool, valued at $280.

The annual amount of wool carded is 1,200 bundles, yielding 12,000 pounds of rolls. This would afford some of our school boys a nice sum for calculation, showing how much yarn, how many pairs of socks, or how much cloth these socks would make.

The grist mill was rebuilt in 1877 (the present year) by Mr. H. Davis, Jr. It is 30x60 feet, 2 storeys.

Capital invested $1,500. It is intended for 4 run of stones, having 8 Spiral vent water wheels. There is but one run French burr stones in operation. The mill and its machinery is of good capacity, and is turning out good work in buckwheat and corn meal and feed, but it has not been in operation sufficiently long to enable us to present details of its work and the annual result. Being the only grist mill in town, it must prove a great convenience, and we do not doubt that Mr. Davis will see that it is made to do its work in a satisfactory manner.


"There's nothing like leather," the old rhyme tells us, and every day's experience impresses upon all the importance of that art which transfers the skins and pelts of animals into a material that so largely conduces to our comfort, and one so eminently adapted to many of the conveniences and necessities of practical life. From the delicate kid and morocco that encases the hands and feet of the fairer portion of creation, to the stronger and coarser kinds of leather, with which feet and hands are protected from the weather, with which we harness our horses and use as belting in our factories, all are the result of the tanners art. It is an adornment — a convenience — a comfort — an indispensible.

Tannery of Mr. John McCormac.

This establishment is on Connell street, and was first opened by the present proprietor in 1861, he succeeded Mr. Bernard McLauchlan, whose tannery on the same site was destroyed by the fire of 1860. In the disastrous conflagration of last spring Mr. McCormac's property was involved, but from the ruins the present establishment speedily rose.

The buildings in which this business is carried on are one 30x60 feet, of two storeys, and one 15x30 of one storey.

In these are 26 tanning vats, with a capacity for tanning 60 sides each, 1,560, being equal to 30 a week.

A specialty of this establishment is the novel system of cold water leaching adopted, this being the only establishment in the Province in which, we believe, the system, a highly commended one, has been introduced. It may be described simply as an arrangement of four leach pits contiguous to each other filled with bark, and the water entering one of these passes through all before it empties itself into the tanning vats. — Thus without any additional labor the bark is entirely exhausted of its tanning properties, while liquor of any desired strength is secured, while it is found that the leather produced is clearer and brighter in color.

The amount of capital invested is $3,400, including the value of a splitting machine and bark mill.

1,500 raw hides are used annually from which leather of the various kinds — harness, calf, upper, &c., to the value of $12,000 is produced. The hides used are chiefly domestic. In the number given is included, at an average, the quantity of skins as well as hides proper put in.

The quantity of bark used annually is 200 cords. Number of hands employed, 4; receiving in wages $100 per month, or $1,200 annually.

22 December, 1877.

Mr. J. D. Dickinson's Steam Tannery.

This extensive establishment is situated at Lower Corner, so called, the southern extremity of the town. It is, if not the oldest, among the oldest manufactories in Woodstock, and was originally established by Mr. Stephen Parsons. It was destroyed by fire in 1858, and rebuilt by Stephen Parsons and his son Edwin. In 1866 Messrs. S. J. Parsons, J. D. Dickinson and Philip Davis bought the concern, but the latter retired soon after, and the business was conducted by Messrs. Parsons & Dickinson down to 1872, when J. D. Dickinson became sole proprietor and made large addition to the establishment. In 1874 Mr. Anthony Kearney became associated with Mr. Dickinson; this partnership was dissolved in 1876, since which time the present proprietor has controlled the concern.

The land occupied is 250x100 feet.

The amount of capital invested in building, machinery, stock, land, &c., $16,000. Number of hands employed, 10. Amount of wages paid $250 per month, or $3,000 per annum.

The quantity of bark used annually is 500 cords. Number of hides tanned annually is 5,000, of which 2,000 are tanned for other parties. 1,500 of the hides are foreign, the balance domestic. The value of leather produced annually is $30,000. Capacity of the yard is 6,000 hides per year.

The main building is 50x80, with an ell 32x53; there is a basement under both main building and ell and a spacious attic storey over the main building. The basement contains the engine and boilers — 20 horse power, built on a brick foundation 7 feet deep — a wet tan furnace with two tubular boilers, 3 feet diameter, 12 feet long (this furnace consumes wet tan-bark and saw dust) a force pump which draws water from a well in the yard some distance away across the street, supplying all the water required for the tannery, and capable of throwing a stream of water over the building; 40 double vats, each 7x8 feet, 6 feet deep, each capable of holding 125 sides; 11 vats — soaps, limes and baits; a hide mill capable of milling 200 dry hides in every twenty-four hours.

The sweating house is built out from the basement.

The leach house is 40x42, containing 2 leaches, each capable of containing 6 cords ground bark; this bark falls from the grinders on to a belt, which carries it to the leach tubs, from which the spent bark is removed by hand.

Beneath these leachs are two junks to receive the waste liquor which is brought from the vats to the junks in conductors; this waste liquor is thrown by a rotary pump, capable of throwing 360 gallons per minute, into a tank above, from whence it escapes into a steam box heated by steam from the boiler, and thence into a revolving sprinkler, from which it drops into the bark in leach, running from leach into strong liquor junk, and is then thrown by another rotary pump, capable of throwing 200 gallons per minute into 3 coolers 8x12 feet, 4 feet deep. The strong liquor escapes from these coolers into any vat required by opening a plug as desired. There are also two revolving bandlers, used for washing and staining leather.

On the main floor is a bark room, 40x40 feet, in which is a bark mill, capable of grinding 10 cords in every 24 hours; a knife grinder for sharpening splitting knives; a pebbling machine and a glossing jack.

The curry shop is 40x40 feet, in which is a splitting machine and rolling machine.

Over the ell is the drying room 32x53 feet, with capacity for drying 500 sides. The whole buildings are heated by steam.

29 December, 1877.

Passing from the Tanneries in which the raw hides are prepared for further manufacture into articles that so largely conserve the comfort and convenience of life, we come to look at these latter in which leather becomes a raw material.

Jas. Baker, Boot and Shoe Maker.

Mr. Baker, though not old in years, is old in the sense of long established in his business in this town, having commenced in 1852, and being one of the many sufferers by the great fire of 1860.

For several years his establishment has been on Main street, and it was entirely destroyed by the fire of last spring — shop, stock, material — everything but the land, and the energy of the proprietor, who immediately rebuilt.

The amount of capital invested is $6,000. Number of hands employed, 8, to whom wages is paid amounting monthly to $200, or annually $2,400.

Material used in leather stock amounts to $4,800 per year, and in findings to $150 per year.

The machinery in use consists of 2 sewing machines; 2 rollers; 1 cramper, and a treeing machine.

The annual products are 1,300 pairs men and boys' boots; 2,000 pairs women's boots and shoes, and 1,000 pairs of boots and shoes for children's wear.


Messrs. Hamilton & Dickinson

Have their boot and shoe shop located on Queen street. This business was established by Mr. Hamilton a year ago, Mr. Dickinson becoming his partner last July.

The amount of capital invested in building is $600. Number of hands employed, 4. Wages paid monthly, $120, or $1,440 a year.

Machines in use are a sewing machine, rolling do.; turning do.; rubbing do., and a splitting machine.

Of raw material there is used annually in leather to the value of $1,200, and in findings $200.

The products of this establishment annually are 400 pairs of men and boys' boots; 150 pairs women and children's boots and shoes; 100 pairs of slippers, and repairing is done to the value of $175.

Under this class we expected to have mentioned the factory of Messrs. Bailie Bros., who for some years have carried on quite an extensive business, giving good satisfaction to their customers. — They are, however, now retiring from business, and we can only express here our regret at the fact.


Messrs. Cluff & Barker,

Harness-makers, are established on Connell street, near the corner of Main street. This establishment originated with Mr. Richard Cluff, in 1861, and it was in the building occupied by him, on Main street, that the fire of last May, and which destroyed his stock and tools, originated.

In June last Mr. Barker became associated with Mr. Cluff in the business.

The amount of capital invested is $1,000. Number of hands employed, 3. Wages paid, $120 per month, or $1,440 per year.

The material used for manufacture is in value of leather $1,800, and of trimmings $1,800.

The value of production in harnesses of various kinds is $6,000 annually.


Philip Davis, Harness Manufacturer.

This establishment was started originally by Mr. J. G. Emery; subsequently Mr. Davis became the proprietor; then he sold out to Messrs. Emery & Starrett; afterward for a time Mr. Starrett continued the business, until the fall just passed the present proprietor again became the owner. The establishment is on King street.

Capital invested, $8,500. Number of hands employed, 3. Wages paid, $80 per month, or $960 per year. Machines and tools, value $250.

Material used amounts in value, leather, $2,900; trimmings, $2,000.

The value of annual productions is $7,200.


T. L. Estey

Commenced business in Woodstock, at Harness-making, in July, 1870. He was burned out in the disastrous fire of May last, but not discouraged, set to work and speedily had erected the building which he now occupies on the corner of Main and Harvey streets. Mr. Estey's building is well adapted for his business, being lighted from both streets. His workshop is 17x25; sales room, 10x19; show room, 5x14.

Amount of capital invested, $775. — Number of hands employed, 3; wages paid, $84 per month, or $1,008 a year.

Material used amounts in value to harness leather, $1,100; hames, thread, mountings, &c., $1,000.

The annual production is 38 sets single harness, $1,254; 35 sets double harness, $1,295; parts sets double and single harness, $1,200; jobbing to the value of $600. Total value of annual products $4,349.


Jas. D. Reid, Harness Maker.

Mr. Reid is situated at the eastern end of King street, not a very favorable locality for business. After working for 25 years at the business in Boston, 18 of which was spent in one establishment, and that one noted for the excellence of its work, Mr. Reid came to Woodstock, and during the present year offered his services to the public here. Mr. Reid works alone, and has produced some exceedingly fine specimens of his handicraft. His object is rather to cater for the few who are disposed and can afford to purchase harnesses made of the very best stock, trimmed with the very best mounting, and put together in the neatest and most lasting manner by his own hands. He makes a specialty of horses boots, of which he has a large variety of styles.

12 January, 1878.

Tailors and Clothiers

We have endeavored to do justice to that portion of the community who make and manufacture leather and leather goods. Having seen where the outer clothing for our feet (our, here, meaning the multitudinous public) we pass on to consider some figures touching the other portions of wearing apparel which the tailor produces. What a broad and suggestive subject it is. How many poets, authors and painters, too, have found scope for employment in depicting the changes in the material and style of dress following that first leafy covering which was extemporized in Eden. But we may not discuss the topic in its breadth now; we may not linger over the production of the first dress article or the production of successive generations of such, but rather step into the store of

Mr. Simon McLeod,

Whose establishment is on Main street, and who commenced business in 1876. Mr. McLeod was one of the unfortunates burnt out in May last. He then occupied a shop in Mr. Hayden's building. Immediately after the fire he put up a building of his own on a site a little further up the street, suitably arranged for his present business. His store is 17½x50 feet, and up stairs his workroom is the same size.

The amount of capital invested is $1,500; that is what we call permanent capital.

Number of hands employed, 10; wages paid, $125 per month, or $1,500 per annum.

The annual quantity of material used by Mr. McLeod approximates to 4,500 yards of cloth, and trimmings to the value of about $1,876, the total probable value being say $7,500.

The products of this establishment are about seven suits of clothes per week, or 864 per annum.

Mr. McLeod runs two sewing machines. He also keeps on hand a large and varied assortment of imported ready-made clothing, furnishing goods, &c.


John Walker

Before visiting the establishment of Mr. Walker, it may be remarked as wonderful the change that in twenty years has taken place in this branch of industry, as regards the number of hands employed and the quantity of clothing manufactured. Then three or four men, working in the old fashioned position, composed the entire staff of the honorable fraternity of tailors. Now, it is the object of these articles to tell how many men and women are engaged in the same industry.

Mr. Walker established himself here in 1868, and last April took possession of his present eligible quarters, up stairs in G. W. Vanwart's new building. He thus escaped the fire of last spring.

The capital invested is say $400. — Number of hands employed, 18; wages paid, $140 per month, or $1,680 per annum. Two sewing machines and a pressing machine are used.

The quantity of cloths and trimmings annually amounts to $3,000

There are, on an average, 9 suits of clothes made per week, being 468 per year.

Twelve girls at wok in one room makes it a hive of industry, and it is astonishing what a noise the accumulated sounds of twelve needles at work, at once, make. It were a vile slander to say that the noise is from the tongues of the young ladies, have we not special means of knowing, being near neighbors, and do we not know as to the fact.


James McRae

Mr. McRae established himself in business in August, 1875; he was of the large number of business men who were burned out in May last. He is now located on King street. Amount of capital invested, $200. It may be here remarked that in proportion to the number of hands employed and the amount of material made up, there is scarcely any business requiring less outlay in the way of permanent capital than the tailoring business.

Mr. McRae employs 7 hands; in this as in the other similar establishments, the work being done by girls. The wages paid amounts to $84. per month, or $1,008 per annum. 2 sewing machines are used. The quantity of cloth made into garments amounts to about 2,548 yards, with trimmings to the value of some $1,100.

There are manufactured here annually say 864 suits of clothes.

26 January, 1878.

In times not half a century ago they were called Tinkers, and dissolute men, as a class, they were. Now they are properly called "Tinsmiths," and by their character and mode of conducting business have given their calling a position of credit among the industrial arts.

Mr. Wm. Hamilton

Established himself here as a Tinsmith in 1858, and lost building and stock in last spring's fire. He immediately rebuilt on the former site, Main street, and now occupies a large and convenient shop and wareroom.

Amount of capital invested, $1,600. Number of hands employed, 2 boys. Wages, $328 per year. Raw material used, in value $800.

Value of articles manufactured per annum, $1,600.


J. McAfee,

Having graduated from the establishment of Small & Fisher as a master workman in tin, commenced business for himself in 1872. He was burnt out and lost heavily in the big fire. He erected a brick-cased building on Main street, on the site of Small & Fisher's former building, and has a fine shop and wareroom.

Amount of capital invested, $1,700. — Number of hands employed, 3. Wages, $64 per month, or $708 per annum. — Raw material used — Tin, 75 boxes; sheet iron, 8 tons; galvanized iron, 1 ton; wire, 1,300 lbs.; Russia iron, 1,000 lbs.; trimmings and stamped ware, $200; all equal in value to $1,746.

The annual value of the products of this establishment is $8,500.


We come now to that notable industry Blacksmithing.

Mr. P. Ryan's establishment, at the Lower Corner, is and has been for many years well known. He has been in business some 30 years, and during that time has at some periods manufactured extensively. The natural law by which business seeks centralization has greatly affected the Lower Corner; the business has to a great extent moved to Woodstock proper. Mr. Ryan has now invested in his present business $1,000. Number of hands employed, 2. Wages paid, $60 per month, or $720 per annum. The value of raw material used, in iron, steel, bolts, &c., is some $1,000 annually, and the products, in vehicles, repairing, iron work generally, amount in value to say $2,500. Mr. Ryan devotes a good deal of attention to sources of revenue outside of his blacksmith business.


John Kerrigan.

In a little shop "round the corner," near Mr. Ryan's establishment, is Mr. John Kerrigan's shop, where, for a quarter of a century at least, he has devoted himself to the business of Horse Shoeing, working constantly himself, at which he is an expert of widely established reputation.

Amount of capital invested, $800. — Number of hands employed, 1. Wages $26 per month, or $312 per annum.

Raw material used — Iron and steel, 3 tons; coal, 3 tons; horse nails, 400 lbs.

The number of horses fully shod is 1,200 annually.


R. S. Piper

Established himself in business here in 1874. He was burned out in last spring's fire and lost largely, without insurance. His new blacksmith shop, a very neat and well appointed one, is now on Harvey street. Amount of capital invested, $400. Number of hands employed (he works at the forge himself) 1. Wages paid, $36 per month, or $432 per year. Value of raw material used, $490 annually.

The chief item of his business is horse shoeing; and the aggregate in value of the work done amounts to about $1,500 per annum.


Mr. Hamilton and Mr. Arnold, blacksmiths, have forgotten their promise to furnish us with their figures.


23 February, 1878.

Having "done" Woodstock, we now propose to give in the order we have received the information, details of some of the outside factories; and among them we first come to the

Benton Tannery.

This establishment was erected by its present proprietor, Mr. S. J. Parsons, in 1872, with forty 7x8 feet layaway vats, and a capacity of 10,000 sides of sole leather per annum. — In 1873 an addition was built to the roll loft of 24x60 feet and in 1875 twenty-four 7x9 pit vats were put in the main yard, increasing the size of building 34x70, and the power of production to from 16,000 to 20,000 sides.

The establishment has now 64 vats, for laying away, which will hold from 100 to 150 sides of leather each, according to the weight of stock. The main building is 34x175 feet, with a dry room over the whole extent. In a structure adjoining are the limes, nine vats 7x8 feet, and 5 pools or soaks the same size. The vats are of a uniform depth of 5 feet 8 in., made in the most thorough manner.

In still another building, 22x60, are the bark mill, and two 12 cord leaches, where the strength can be taken from 24 or 36 cords of bark in each week as required. Two powerful rotary pumps, throwing 350 galls. each per minute, can change the liquor used in 2 or 3 leaches — per week — more than 33,000 galls. in a few hours; this work in the "olden times" was done by hand.

The two Salem hide mills will soften more dry hides in a day than 30 men could on the beam in the old-fashioned way. The finishing roller, where the sole leather is compressed under a pressure of two tons, and afterward rolled again under a lighter weight to finish it, is in a room 24x100. Here the stock is weighed, bundled and made ready for shipment.

The engine and boiler house is of stone, 33x50, and contains engine, boiler, and steam heater, where the water is heated for leaching the bark.

It should have been stated before that, after the hot liquor leaves the leaches, it passes through about 150 feet of thin copper tube, which is surrounded by cold running water, so that when the liquor is put into the vats it is cool enough. No hot liquors are used even on the leather here.

Owing to the drouth last summer the proprietor was induced to substitute steam for the water power, before used, so that the motive power is now sure and ample. During the last two months of 1877 it was worked up to about its full capacity. In the months of October and November last there were shipped from this place 2,605 sides of leather weighing over 52,000 lbs., worth say $13,000.

During the past year there have been used 5,200 foreign hides, costing $28,600; 1,050 cords bark, cost $3,675; 25 bbls. oil, cost $625; 35 carboys acid, cost $170; 400 cords wood, cost $300; 1 bbl. machine oil, $30; lime, $100; making in all $33,500, cost of material.

The number of men employed, 11; wages $3,870 per year. The average products are 10,400 sides, 200,655 lbs. of sole leather, worth say $50,166.

Five acres of land are used for buildings, piling ground for bark, wood, &c.

The cost of the whole establishment was about $18,000.

Mr. Parsons has made ample provision against loss by fire. He has systematized his fire protection agencies. There are plank walks on the ridge polls of each building; wide stair ladders to all roofs; casks of water in all lofts; racks with pails full of water everywhere; a powerful force pump with 400 feet of hose, working by either power; also a direct acting steam pump with hose, and with these provisions, and the fact that his establishment is worked by careful hands, he feels, as well he may, comparatively safe.

Mr. Parsons expressed the opinion that the reputation of the Benton sole leather is largely due to the skill and pains taking ability of his foreman, Mr. Edward Saunders, who formerly worked for F. Shaw & Bros., in Easton, Me., and who has been with Mr. P. ever since he started in 1872, and who appears to feel almost as much interested in the success of this establishment as its proprietor himself. We like to hear such expressions of confidence and esteem, indicating a correct and proper toned sentiment as existing between employer and employed.

This is an institution of which the people of Benton are very proud, as they are of its enterprising and genial proprietor. Let us add that it is a village, taking it with all its manufacturing, social and religious associations, one in which we should all feel pride.


9 March, 1878.

A prominent industry in this locality, one that is famous in no limited sense, was established in 1848, by Mr. F. P. Sharp, and in later years known as the

Sharp & Shea Nurseries,

Mr. Sharp having been joined in the enterprise several years ago by the late W. S. Shea. Under the management of this firm the business attained large proportions and became firmly established.

It is now carried on it Woodstock, Grafton, and Houlton, Me. Mr. Geo. A. Gentle, of Grafton, having purchased Mr. Shea's interest now conducts that portion of the nurseries formerly belonging to his heirs, and the balance is owned by Mr. Sharp, the business being carried on under the old name of Sharp & Shea.

The amount of capital invested we are not in a position to state, and can only estimate the number of trees under cultivation. Their orchards, alone, contain not less than 10,000 trees; they have in their cellars upwards of 200,000; the orders to be filled next spring already are for 150,000 trees, valued at say $18,737.

In the nurseries there are some 300,000 trees of which one-third are plums, the value of which may be roughly estimated at over one hundred thousand dollars, the value of the plum trees being greatly in excess of that of the apples.

There are twelve acres of ground under nurseries, the proper cultivation of and attention to which requires about 15 men for 6 months in the year; the wages paid is some $2,500 per year.

Woodstock, we quote Mr. Sharp, not belonging to the great fruit producing zone, in which the apple finds its natural home, of the thousands of varieties which thrive in milder climes, only a very few indeed are profitable here, so that it has always been one main object with this firm to select and produce varieties suited to unfavorable soils and climates, and the fruitful orchards now found in every direction is proof of their success in this direction.

Another feature aiding the success of these nurseries, is keeping the trees in the winter in great cellars at exactly the temperature which best preserves the vital forces intact; the trees thus preserved stand transplanting better than when the living principle is nearly lost by extreme cold as in the case when exposed through the winter in the nursery. — This plan will doubtless be followed by all nurserymen in cold climates.

Many other improvements in propogation have been devised or adopted, under the exigencies of an extreme climate, which they claim enables them to furnish a better tree, for our climate, than can be procured elsewhere, and the large amount of their sales show that buyers are of the same opinion.

Mr. Sharp, in this connection, has excelled the benefactions bestowed by him who makes two blades of grass grow where only one grew before, for he has been the instrument of introducing into this County and elsewhere on the continent, not only a taste for fruit raising, but species which can be raised with great satisfaction and profit. Those who had the old-fashioned orchards of mostly unpalatable apples have replaced them with kinds pleasing to the eye and grateful to the taste, while those who before did not venture upon an attempt, when only limited success could possibly result, now raise their own apples of approved qualities.


16 March, 1878.

Grafton is a village of the most rapid growth of any in Carleton County. A very few years ago it was a very delightful flat with some three or four farm houses upon its front. Now it is a little town of many dwellings, with hotel, stores, public hall, factories, &c. The completion of the railroad to Northampton Station first, and then the building of the bridge across the river, were the grand impelling motives of the present result. Grafton lies immediately opposite Woodstock, and prominent in the foreground, as we look at that village, stands the

Steam Saw Mill

of Messrs. Hale & Boyer. A mill was first erected there five years ago by Messrs. Stickney & Hale; it was burned down in April, 1875; in July following the present mill was put in operation by the firm first named above, Mr. Boyer having bought out Mr. Stickney. The building is 70x80 feet, including engine room. Capital invested in land, buildings and machinery, $8,500. — Number of hands employed, 15. Wages paid, including team, $20 per day, or over $5,600 per year.

The machinery run consists of 1 rotary; 1 shingle machine, (made by Connell Brothers); 1 clapboard machine; cut-off, trimmers, edgers, &c.

The production during 8 months of the year passed, being the average running time, was 1,000,000 logs, cut into boards and scantling; 1,500,000 shingles; 200,000 clapboards; and of fire wood, 350 cords. — The lumber was valued at $7,325.


23 March, 1878.

A friend sending, in response to our invitation, some statements regarding certain industries in the County, observes that it is only necessary for any person, living in this 19th century, who thinks that but little if any progress and improvement is being made in this County, to look back and trace what has been done in the sixteen years. Improvement is observable on every hand. In education, in the arts and sciences, in farming, in bridge building, &c. Twenty years ago a bridge across the river was regarded as a something very desirable, but those who most warmly admitted that, scarcely believed its accomplishment possible within the period named. But the bridge is there a fact. The next twenty years will, doubtless, see much greater things accomplished. Time was not long since when the work of the farm and the farm-house was all done by hard hand labor, while now, by the aid of machines, that work is done with ease and pleasure. In the education of the females throughout the County the same spirit of progress is evident. While the farmer's daughter is now, as of old, instructed in all the useful arts, she is at the same time encouraged to interest herself in music and other refined accomplishments, and while she is taught how to prepare a meal, and serve it, fit for a Governor to enjoy, she is so educated that she can entertain such a dignitary with grace in the parlor.

These reflections of our correspondent, we use as an introduction to a visit to the Carriage Shop of

Charles E. Parent, Centreville.

Mr. Parent came to Centreville from York County in 1875, and established his business in a rented shop; the next year he purchased land and premises, which he fitted up to suit the wants of his rapidly increasing trade to manufacturing carriages, sleds, sleighs, &c. The building is 36x44 feet, of three storeys, with a blacksmith shop 30x36 feet in the basement. The wood shop, on the second flat, is 24x36; on the third flat is the paint shop, while the attic is used for storing lumber, &c.

The estimated value of the building, &c., is $2,500. Number of hands employed, 5. Wages paid $120 per month. Raw material used, $1,500 per annum.

The work done at this establishment for the 9 months previous to the preparation of this notice was, in manufactured waggons, &c., $1,300 — these had all been sold; sleighs and pungs, $400; repairing, &c., $1,000; horse shoeing and general job work, $800.

His work is done in all the departments, substantially and neatly.

Near by is the blacksmith shop of

C. A. West,

who was the first to start this business in the village of Centreville, and where for several years he had that business entirely in his own hands, but of course with increasing population and demand, there came in another claimant for a share of the business.

Mr. West's shop is 20x35 feet; the second flat having been occupied until recently by Thos. Reid, who repaired sleds and waggons. The stock used during the year was of value $325. Wages paid, $230, the proprietor's son being the only assistant. Value of work done in ironing sleds and waggons, horse shoeing and general job work, $800.



  1.   The Carleton Sentinel, Woodstock, New Brunswick, Saturday, 20 October 1877 et seq. issues.